WASHINGTON — The Senate easily passed a sprawling farm bill, 87 to 13, on Tuesday, advancing an ambitious $867 billion measure that rejected stricter work requirements for food-stamp recipients that were pushed by House Republicans and cheered by President Trump.
The twice-a-decade legislation provides a safety net for farmers hit with unexpected weather or by tariffs, as well as to low-income Americans struggling to feed themselves and their families. It is one of the most politically sensitive pieces of legislation Congress passes, balancing the demands of urban legislators hoping to maintain or increase funding for nutrition programs and rural lawmakers seeking to protect farmers, a divide brought into sharp relief this year as negotiations continued months after the previous bill’s Sept. 30 expiration date.
“By working across the aisle, we overcame many differences to deliver a strong, bipartisan farm bill for our farmers, families, and rural communities,” said Senator Debbie Stabenow of Michigan, the top Democrat on the Senate Agriculture Committee. “The farm bill is a good bill for our farmers and everyone who eats.”
The chief point of contention was the House’s inclusion of new work requirements for able-bodied adults seeking food stamps. Conservatives had also hoped to close a loophole in the limited work requirements in existing law that allows states to waive the requirements in areas with high unemployment rates. Both measures received backing from Mr. Trump, who had called the new requirements “imperative.”
But the bipartisan group of negotiators from the House and Senate hashing out the final deal declined to take up either of those changes. They punted the issue of waivers to the agriculture secretary, Sonny Perdue, who has signaled he would look to use his regulatory power to limit states’ abilities to request those exemptions.
After House Republicans lost their majority in the midterms, they also lost their negotiating power, with Democrats making clear they would block any farm bill not to their liking and try again next year. Negotiators adopted a version of the bill that closely mirrors the Senate’s bipartisan version, which passed 86 to 11 in June.
House conservatives continued to grouse, but there is little chance that they can block the bill from reaching the president this month.
“More Americans on Food Stamps than the entire population of Canada,” Representative Jim Jordan of Ohio, a co-founder of the conservative Freedom Caucus, wrote on Twitter. “Yet Democrats won’t support work requirements for able-bodied adults receiving your tax dollars.”
A vote in the House is expected this week. Both Speaker Paul D. Ryan of Wisconsin and Senator Pat Roberts of Kansas, the Republican chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, defended the bill.
“We’ve been trying to point out this is no time for a revolutionary farm bill,” Mr. Roberts told reporters, referring to the tariffs that have hit farmers who produce corn, cotton, soybeans and other crops. “It’s time to get a bill done, so our farmers have predictability and certainty during a very difficult time.”
The bill, described by Representative Collin Peterson of Minnesota, the top Democrat on the House Agriculture Committee, as “mostly status quo,” does make some changes. At the insistence of Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, the Senate majority leader, it legalizes industrial hemp as a crop, giving farmers hurting from the loss of tobacco a boost. Mr. McConnell has championed industrial hemp for his once tobacco-dependent state. The measure is expected to open up the usage of hemp for construction products and plastic composites, and should help vendors of cannabidiol, a cannabis compound that does not cause a high.
Environmentalists cheered the omission of provisions included in the House farm bill that would have rolled back regulations on pesticides, including one measure that would have allowed the Environmental Protection Agency to approve pesticides without going through the current consultation process to assess how they would affect endangered species.
“We are pleased that the conference committee has negotiated a farm bill that’s focused on the right things: supporting healthy lands, water, wildlife and rural communities,” Kirin Kennedy, the Sierra Club’s associate legislative director, said in a statement.
The bill also extends insurance coverage to new crops and expands risk-management options for dairy farmers. And it greatly increases funding in some other areas, quadrupling it for organic research, and vaulting it from $25 million to $350 million annually to provide high-speed internet in rural communities.
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